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Manometer: What It Is and How It Works

A manometer is a device used to measure the pressure or fluid level in a confined space. It consists of two parts: the tube, called the stem, and an attachment at one end that allows it to be raised and lowered. A scale on the other end indicates how much pressure or liquid is present. It is sometimes called a differential manometer, because it can be used to measure the difference between the pressures in the two chambers. This is important in some applications, such as measuring the pressure of air in an engine.



The different types of manometers are based on how they allow fluids to move–through capillary action, hydraulic action (used for liquids), displacement (for gases), or thermal expansion/contraction (temperature changes).

It is a tool that is used in laboratories to measure and record pressure, flow, and other physical properties. It is a loose-fitting, box-like instrument that is filled with a fluid, such as mercury, and the pressure or other physical property is measured in the instrument. A manometer is made up of two metal chambers that are interconnected by a tube. The pressure in the two chambers is equal to the pressure in the tube.

The manometer is able to measure pressures up to about 500,000 kilopascals.

A manometer can be used to measure the pressure of fluid, gas, or vapour. It can be used to measure atmospheric pressure, the pressure inside a container, the pressure inside a vessel, the pressure of liquid undergoing various processes, or the pressure inside an experimental apparatus.


How does a manometer works?

It is a simple device that consists of a tube in which the pressure is measured. The tube is sealed at one end and open at the other. The pressure inside the tube is registered on a dial or a scale. It can be used to measure both static and dynamic pressures. It measures pressure or flow rates by converting the force needed to move liquid or gas through a small opening into an electric current. A manometer works on the principle of alternative pressure. When the pressure in the manometer rises, the air inside the manometer pushes the liquid towards the open end. The liquid spreads the pressure over a wider area and this pressure difference is registered on the scale. Similarly, when the pressure in the manometer falls, the liquid recedes towards the sealed end and the pressure difference is registered on the scale.


What are the different types of manometer?

There are various types of manometers that are used for different purposes. A mercury manometer is the most common type. It uses mercury as the pressure medium. It is easy to use and has a long life. However, it is sensitive to temperature change and can be damaged if the mercury accumulates at the bottom of the manometer. An atmosphere manometer uses the Earth's atmospheric pressure as the pressure medium. It is highly accurate and doesn't get affected by temperature changes. However, it is not as sensitive as mercury manometers. A hydrometer manometer uses water as the pressure medium. It is accurate to within 1% of the atmospheric pressure. It is also very tolerant to temperature changes.


Piezometer- A piezometer is a device that is used to measure the pressure of gases or fluids. It is usually made of glass or plastic and has a plunger or diaphragm that can be compressed by the pressure of the fluid to be measured. The plunger or diaphragm is moved up and down by the pressure and the amount of displacement or pressure change is recorded.

Most piezometers are used to measure the pressure of gas leaks. They are inserted into the gas line to measure the pressure at different points along the line. The pressure is recorded at each point and the average pressure is used in the calculation of the leak.

Piezometers have limitations. They are not accurate when the pressure is very high or very low. They are also not accurate at very low temperatures.


U-tube manometer- U tube manometers can be used for a variety of purposes, such as measuring the pressure inside a vessel, calculating the Bernoulli principle, or measuring the pressure and volume of liquids. They are also often used in engineering and physics to measure the pressure and flow of gases, liquids, and heat.

The benefits of using a u tube manometer include its accuracy, versatility, and ease of use. It is ideal for measuring pressure, flow, andvolumes in various applications, making it a valuable tool in engineering and physics.

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